12. Solid state batteries


A solid-state battery uses solid electrodes and electrolytes, rather than the liquid electrolytes or polymer gels found in lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries. Solid-state batteries promise higher energy density than Li-ion batteries, which use a liquid electrolyte solution, as well as increased fast charging capabilities. They also entail no risk of explosion or fire, so there is no need for safety components, saving space. Worldwide efforts to make solid-state batteries a potentially safe and stable high-energy, high-throughput electrochemical storage technology are still hampered by problems of long-term performance, specific power and economic viability.


  • Solid-state batteries are expensive compared to other available alternatives such as lithium batteries. Solid-state battery prices are estimated to range from $800/kWh to $400/kWh by 2026, compared to liquid electrolyte batteries, which are currently around $156/kWh.
  • EV range is limited by the energy density of the batteries and the charging rate. The energy density of solid-state batteries could be twice that of current lithium-ion batteries. Announced charging times are 10 minutes for 80% of capacity (Volkswagen in partnership with QantumSpace).
  • Some solid-state battery technologies suffer from the same supply-side vulnerabilities as conventional technologies (cobalt, lithium, etc.).
  • Toyota announced to be in a leading position to achieve the first functional mass-produced solid-state battery and is to be the first company to sell an electric vehicle equipped with a solid-state battery by mid-2020s.

Challenges and opportunities for DSOs

  • Solid-state batteries could accelerate the development of Electric Vehicles (EVs).
  • Solid-state batteries could escalate the power of charging stations on major roads.
  • Thousands of batteries are installed on grids to provide autonomy to control and protect equipment. The use of solid-state batteries would allow DSOs to extend battery lifespan and improve maintenance.
  • If DC solutions are adopted, several challenges must be overcome: further development of protection systems and DC circuit breakers, lack of standardization (especially in terms of voltage levels, other specifications, interoperability, and commissioning procedures), and DC installation high costs.

EDSO Considerations

  • DSOs must prepare for a scenario of the emergence of solid-state batteries by analyzing the impact on investment needs, load management, etc.
  • DSOs will have to perform numerous tests on solid-state batteries prior to their widespread deployment on grids.

Last update: 28 September 2023